Kybernetes 29 (7/8):928-942. (2000)

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Abstract
Considers that in ecosystem, landscape and global ecology, an energetics reading of ecological systems is an expression of a cybernetic, systemic and holistic approach. In ecosystem ecology, the Odumian paradigm emphasizes the concept of emergence, but it has not been accompanied by the creation of a method that fully respects the complexity of the objects studied. In landscape ecology, although the emergentist, multi-level, triadic methodology of J.K. Feibleman and D.T. Campbell has gained acceptance, the importance of emergent properties is still undervalued. In global ecology, the Gaia hypothesis is an expression of an organicist metaphor, while the emergentist terminology used is incongruent with the underlying physicalist cybernetics. More generally, an analytico-additional methodology and the reduction of the properties of ecosystems to the laws of physical chemistry render purely formal any assertion about the emergentist and holistic nature of the ecological systems studied.
Keywords Cybernetics  General living systems theory  Emergence  Reductionism  Odum E.P.  Odum H.T.  Lovelock J.E.  Ecosystem Ecology  Global Ecology  Landscape Ecology
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Downward Causation.Donald T. Campbell - 1974 - In F. Ayala & T. Dobzhansky (eds.), Studies in the Philosophy of Biology. University of California Press. pp. 179--186.
Studies in the Philosophy of Biology.F. Ayala & T. Dobzhansky (eds.) - 1974 - University of California Press.
Janus: A Summing Up.Arthur Koestler - 1978 - Vintage Books.
11.'Downward Causation'in Hierarchically Organised Biological Systems.Donald T. Campbell - 1974 - In Francisco Jose Ayala & Theodosius Grigorievich Dobzhansky (eds.), Studies in the Philosophy of Biology: Reduction and Related Problems. University of California Press. pp. 179.

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