Évaluation et élitisme : d'une alliance à l'autre

Abstract
L’article développe la thèse suivante : le phénomène évaluatif, ses instruments et ses institutions nouvellement créées sont à la fois les révélateurs et les opérateurs d’une transformation des rapports entre deux institutions en crise : L’État et les professions. S’inspirant de la trilogie des pouvoirs de Freidson, l’auteur suggère d’analyser l’alliance actuelle entre marché et État tandis qu’une crise et une mutation des élites traditionnelles françaises fragilisent l’alliance entre professions et État caractéristique de la construction de l’État social à la fin du xixe siècle.The article develops the following hypothesis: the phenomenon of evaluation, its recently created tools and institutions both reveal and operate a transformation in the relationship between two institutions in crisis: the State and the professions. Basing my approach on Freidson’s trilogy of powers, I suggest an analysis of the present alliance between the market and the State, while a crisis and change in traditional French elites is weakening the alliance between the professions and the State characteristic of the social State at the end of the xixth century
Keywords élites françaises  Pareto  agences d'évaluation  « new public management »  experts  statistique
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DOI 10.3917/cis.128.0079
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