The Chronicle of Influenza Epidemics

Epidemics that were probably influenza have been reported throughout recorded history. There were 13 fairly severe epidemics during the 18th century and 12 during the 19th century. Probably 8 of these 25 were influenza pandemics. In the 20th century there have been 4 pandemics (1918/19, 1957/58, 1968/69 and 1977) due to the emergence of new subtypes of influenza A virus. The great pandemic of 1918/19 caused an estimated 20 million deaths. Between pandemics usually there have been epidemics of varying severity at intervals of one to three years and a trickle of sporadic cases every winter. The morbidity and mortality rates have varied greatly from epidemic to epidemic and from place to place during the same epidemic. Generally the morbidity has been lowest in people over 60 years of age, but, except for 1918/19, the mortality has been predominantly in old people. The epidemic behaviour of influenza has been so erratic and difficult to understand that there are still a few scientists who consider that extraterrestrial influences operate. These views are not taken seriously by most virologists but there are puzzling aspects of influenza that are not yet understood
Keywords No keywords specified (fix it)
Categories (categorize this paper)
Edit this record
Mark as duplicate
Export citation
Find it on Scholar
Request removal from index
Revision history

Download options

Our Archive

Upload a copy of this paper     Check publisher's policy     Papers currently archived: 45,629
External links

Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
Through your library

References found in this work BETA

No references found.

Add more references

Citations of this work BETA

Add more citations

Similar books and articles

Risk to Human Health Posed by Avian Influenza.Anne Moates - 2005 - Chisholm Health Ethics Bulletin 11 (2):1.
Spanish Agriculture and Malaria in the 18th Century.Juan Riera Palmero & Anastasio Rojo Vega - 1988 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 10 (2):343 - 362.


Added to PP index

Total views
20 ( #453,885 of 2,280,716 )

Recent downloads (6 months)
3 ( #411,028 of 2,280,716 )

How can I increase my downloads?


My notes

Sign in to use this feature