The Certainty, Modality, and Grounding of Newton’s Laws.

The Monist 100 (3):311-325 (2017)
Authors
Eric Schliesser
University of Amsterdam
Zvi Biener
University of Cincinnati
Abstract
Newton began his Principia with three Axiomata sive Leges Motus. We offer an interpretation of Newton’s dual label and investigate two tensions inherent in his account of laws. The first arises from the juxtaposition of Newton’s confidence in the certainty of his laws and his commitment to their variability and contingency. The second arises because Newton ascribes fundamental status both to the laws and to the bodies and forces they govern. We argue the first is resolvable, but the second is not. However, the second tension shows that Newton conceives laws as formal causes of bodies and forces. This neo-Aristotelian conception goes missing in Kantian accounts of laws, as well as accounts that stress laws’ grounding in powers and capacities.
Keywords Isaac Newton  Laws of Nature  Matter  Force
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