How to (properly) strengthen Bell's theorem using counterfactuals

Bell’s theorem in its standard version demonstrates that the joint assumptions of the hidden-variable hypothesis and the principle of local causation lead to a conflict with quantum-mechanical predictions. In his latest counterfactual strengthening of Bell’s theorem, Stapp attempts to prove that the locality assumption itself contradicts the quantum-mechanical predictions in the Hardy case. His method relies on constructing a complex, non-truth functional formula which consists of statements about measurements and outcomes in some region R, and whose truth value depends on the selection of a measurement setting in a space-like separated location L. Stapp argues that this fact shows that the information about the measurement selection made in L has to be present in R. I give detailed reasons why this conclusion can and should be resisted. Next I correct and formalize an informal argument by Shimony and Stein showing that the locality condition coupled with Einstein’s criterion of reality is inconsistent with quantum-mechanical predictions. I discuss the possibility of avoiding the inconsistency by rejecting Einstein’s criterion rather than the locality assumption.
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DOI 10.1016/j.shpsb.2009.12.001
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References found in this work BETA
Events and Processes in the Quantum World.Abner Shimony - 1986 - In Roger Penrose & C. J. Isham (eds.), Quantum Concepts in Space and Time. New York ;Oxford University Press. pp. 182--203.
Quantum Life: Interaction, Entanglement, and Separation.Eric Winsberg - 2003 - Journal of Philosophy 100 (2):80 - 97.

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Ungrounded Dispositions in Quantum Mechanics.Tomasz Bigaj - 2012 - Foundations of Science 17 (3):205-221.

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Counterfactual Definiteness and Local Causation.Brian Skyrms - 1982 - Philosophy of Science 49 (1):43-50.
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