Philosophy East and West 47 (1):47-65 (1997)

Abstract
A theoretical reconstruction of Lu Jiuyuan's view of the nature of human beings and their world is offered. Rejecting the widespread effort to distinguish among such concepts as xing ("human nature"), xin ("heart-mind"), and li ("pattern"), Lu regarded all such concepts as ultimately having the same referent, namely the inherent capability of humans and all things to produce and maintain order and, consequently, existence. Most often using the terms li and xin, Lu regarded li as the patterns of all activities, events, and things of human society and the world. Real in the sense of belonging to actual human experience, these patterns enabled the world to exist to the fullest. Li or these patterns were opposed to disorder (luan), and thus li is called a concept of the "social real."
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DOI 10.2307/1400250
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