AI Communications 13 (4):247–258 (2004)

Maureen Donnelly
State University of New York, Buffalo
Thomas Bittner
State University of New York, Buffalo
Barry Smith
State University of New York, Buffalo
We propose an ontological theory that is powerful enough to describe both complex spatio-temporal processes and the enduring entities that participate therein. For this purpose we introduce the notion a directly depicting ontology. Directly depicting ontologies are based on relatively simple languages and fall into two major categories: ontologies of type SPAN and ontologies of type SNAP. These represent two complementary perspectives on reality and employ distinct though compatible systems of categories. A SNAP (snapshot) ontology comprehends enduring entities such as organisms, geographic features, or qualities as they exist at some given moment of time. A SPAN ontology comprehends perduring entities such as processes and their parts and aggregates as they unfold themselves through some temporal interval. We give an axiomatic account of the theory of directly depicting ontologies and of the core parts of the metaontological fragment within which they are embedded.
Keywords Basic Formal Ontology  bicategorial ontology  directly depicting languages  persistence  continuants vs. occurrents  three-dimensionalism
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References found in this work BETA

A Theory of Granular Partitions.Thomas Bittner & Barry Smith - 2003 - In M. Duckham, M. F. Goodchild & M. F. Worboys (eds.), Foundations of Geographic Information Science. London: Taylor & Francis. pp. 117-151.
Characteristica Universalis.Barry Smith - 1992 - In Kevin Mulligan (ed.), Language, Truth and Ontology. London: Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 48--77.

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Location and Mereology.Cody Gilmore - 2013 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Enduring Through Gunk.Matt Leonard - 2018 - Erkenntnis 83 (4):753-771.
Temporal Parts.Katherine Hawley - 2004/2010 - Stanford Encylopedia of Philosophy.

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