Philosophy of Science 70 (2):308-329 (2003)

In the social sciences we hardly can create laboratory conditions, we only can try to find out which kinds of experiments Nature has carried out. Knowledge about Nature's designs can be used to infer conditions for reliable predictions. This problem was explicitly dealt with in Haavelmo's (1944) discussion of autonomous relationships, Friedman's (1953) as-if methodology, and Simon's (1961) discussions of nearly-decomposable systems. All three accounts take Marshallian partitioning as starting point, however not with a sharp ceteris paribus razor but with the blunt knife of negligibility assumptions. As will be shown, in each account reflection on which influences are negligible, for what phenomena and for how long, played a central role.
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DOI 10.1086/375470
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The Explanation Paradox Redux.Julian Reiss - 2013 - Journal of Economic Methodology 20 (3):280 - 292.
What Invariance Is and How to Test for It.Federica Russo - 2014 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 28 (2):157-183.
The Experiment in Macroeconometrics.John Aldrich & Anna Staszewska - 2007 - Journal of Economic Methodology 14 (2):143-166.

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