Mathematical Logic Quarterly 50 (3):303-324 (2004)

Abstract
This paper studies, with techniques ofAlgebraic Logic, the effects of putting a bound on the cardinality of the set of side formulas in the Deduction Theorem, viewed as a Gentzen-style rule, and of adding additional assumptions inside the formulas present in Modus Ponens, viewed as a Hilbert-style rule. As a result, a denumerable collection of new Gentzen systems and two new sentential logics have been isolated. These logics are weaker than the positive implicative logic. We have determined their algebraic models and the relationships between them, and have classified them according to several standard criteria of Abstract Algebraic Logic. One of the logics is protoalgebraic but neither equivalential nor weakly algebraizable, a rare situation where very few natural examples were hitherto known. In passing we have found new, alternative presentations of positive implicative logic, both in Hilbert style and in Gentzen style, and have characterized it in terms of the restricted Deduction Theorem: it is the weakest logic satisfying Modus Ponens and the Deduction Theorem restricted to at most 2 side formulas. The algebraic part of the work has lead to the class of quasi-Hilbert algebras, a quasi-variety of implicative algebras introduced by Pla and Verdú in 1980, which is larger than the variety of Hilbert algebras. Its algebraic properties reflect those of the corresponding logics and Gentzen systems
Keywords deduction theorem  modus ponens  quasi‐Hilbert algebra  Hilbert algebra  implicative algebra
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DOI 10.1002/malq.200410001
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The Simplest Protoalgebraic Logic.Josep Maria Font - 2013 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 59 (6):435-451.
2004 Summer Meeting of the Association for Symbolic Logic.Wolfram Pohlers - 2005 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 11 (2):249-312.

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