Sub-Theory of Peano Arithmetic
The system called F is essentially a sub-theory of Frege Arithmetic without the ad infinitum assumption that there is always a next number. In a series of papers (Systems for a Foundation of Arithmetic, True” Arithmetic Can Prove Its Own Consistency and Proving Quadratic Reciprocity) it was shown that F proves a large number of basic arithmetic truths, such as the Euclidean Algorithm, Unique Prime Factorization (i.e. the Fundamental Law of Arithmetic), and Quadratic Reciprocity, indeed a sizable amount of arithmetic. In particular, F proves some (but not all) of the Peano Axioms; that is, F proves the axioms of a sub-theory - call it FPA - of second-order Peano-Arithmetic. This short technical note will demonstrate that the converse also holds, in the following sense. F has the same language as second-order Peano Arithmetic except that, in addition, it has a two-place predicate symbol “Μ”. Then it is possible to provide a definition, indeed a reasonable definition, for “Μ” such that FPA proves all the axioms of F. So F and FPA effectively have the same proof-theoretic strength. In particular FPA, which lacks the Successor Axiom stating that every natural number has a successor, is able to prove the Euclidean Algorithm, Unique Prime Factorization, and Quadratic Reciprocity, indeed (again) a sizable amount of arithmetic.