Evolution

Philosophy of Science 45 (1):96-109 (1978)

Abstract
These days 'evolution' is usually defined as any change in the relative frequencies of genes in a population over time. This definition and some obvious alternatives are examined and rejected. The criticism of these definitions points out the need for a more holistic analysis of genotypes. I attempt such analysis by introducing measures of similarity of whole genotypes and then by grouping genotypes into similarity classes. Three sorts of measures of similarity are examined: a measure of structural similarity, a measure of functional similarity and one of relational or historical similarity. The functional approach is shown to be superior and a definition of 'evolution' is suggested
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DOI 10.1086/288781
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Adaptation and Evolutionary Theory.Robert N. Brandon - 1978 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 9 (3):181.
Natural Selection Without Survival of the Fittest.C. Kenneth Waters - 1986 - Biology and Philosophy 1 (2):207-225.
Positive Heuristics in Evolutionary Biology.Richard E. Michod - 1981 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 32 (1):1-36.

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