Svaraj, the indian ideal of freedom: A political or religious concept?: C. MacKenzie brown

Religious Studies 20 (3):429-441 (1984)

Abstract

To many Western students of India, svarāj and mokṣa have often seemed to represent two very different ideals of freedom, the former social, political, and modern; the latter individual, spiritual, and traditional. It is not surprising that the Hindu ideal of spiritual freedom is most commonly known by the term mokṣa , for it is this word that is usually listed as the fourth and supreme goal in the famous four ends of man . The first three ends, desire , success , and morality , find their fulfillment within society, while mokṣa , it is generally said, takes one beyond society. It is pertinent to note, as Ingalls and others have pointed out, that mokṣa is a relatively late term, which came to be added to the older, first three goals of man. As a noun, mokṣa does not appear until the latest of the Upanisads, and then only three times, in Śvetāśvatara 6.16 and Maitrī 6.20 and 30. In addition, some orthodox schools did not accept the ideal of mokṣa for several more centuries, the Mīmāṁsā denying it until the eighth century A.D

Download options

PhilArchive



    Upload a copy of this work     Papers currently archived: 72,805

External links

Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server

Through your library

Analytics

Added to PP
2015-02-05

Downloads
35 (#329,895)

6 months
1 (#386,031)

Historical graph of downloads
How can I increase my downloads?

References found in this work

No references found.

Add more references

Citations of this work

No citations found.

Add more citations

Similar books and articles

The Ideal Life and Moksha (Freedom).Swami Narayananda - 1965 - Narayanananda Universal Yoga Trust.
Marcuse and Freedom.Peter Lind - 1985 - St. Martin's Press.
Theory of Moksa in Jainism.S. Banerji - 1978 - Indian Philosophical Quarterly 5 (2):161-172.
Buddhi, Manas, Deha and Moksa.Ian Watson - 1977 - Indian Philosophical Quarterly 4 (2):151-164.
A Political Standard for Absolute Political Freedom.Robert Hartford - 2011 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 11 (1):45 - 62.
Freedom as a Political Ideal.Steven Wall - 2003 - Social Philosophy and Policy 20 (2):307-334.
Freedom and Equality in the Comparison of Political Systems.Wolfgang Balzer - 2001 - The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 11:173-178.
Hindu Philosophy.Shyam Ranganathan - 2005 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
The Form of Freedom in Plato's Laws: An Interpretation.Diego von Vacano - 2012 - Theoria: A Journal of Social and Political Theory 59 (132):45-59.
Freedom: East and West.Jaysankar L. Shaw - 2011 - Sophia 50 (3):481-497.