Normal injustices and morality in complex organizations

Journal of Business Ethics 33 (3):181 - 190 (2001)
This paper applies theory and research examining errors in complex organizational systems to the problem of individual and collective morality in organizations. It is proposed that because of the nature of complex organizations, unjust outcomes can (and will) result from organizational actions even when all organization members have acted responsibly. The argument that complex organizations are therefore immoral is considered and rejected. Instead, the paper argues that morality in complex organizations begins with "heedful interrelating" among individual organization members. The paper concludes with a discussion of organizational processes and structures that promote heedful interrelating.
Keywords complex organizations  corporate morality  employee accountability  heedful interrelating  organizational errors
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