The Anthropic Principle and its Implications for Biological Evolution [and Discussion]

Abstract
In the form in which it was originally expounded, the anthropic principle was presented as a warning to astrophysical and cosmological theorists of the risk of error in the interpretation of astronomical and cosmological information unless due account is taken of the biological restraints under which the information was acquired. However, the converse message is also valid: biological theorists also run the risk of error in the interpretation of the evolutionary record unless they take due heed of the astrophysical restraints under which evolution took place. After an introductory discussion of the ordinary ('weak') anthropic principle and of its more contestable ('strong') analogue, a new application of the former to the problem of the evolution of terrestrial life is presented. It is shown that the evidence suggests that the evolutionary chain included at least one but probably not more than two links that were highly improbable (a priori) in the available time interval.
Keywords Anthropic Principle  Doomsday argument  Cosmology
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Copernicus, Kant, and the Anthropic Cosmological Principles.Sherrilyn Roush - 2003 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 34 (1):5-35.
The Doomsday Argument and the Number of Possible Observers.Ken D. Olum - 2002 - Philosophical Quarterly 52 (207):164-184.
Indifference Principle and Anthropic Principle in Cosmology.Ernan McMullin - 1993 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 24 (3):359-389.
The Doomsday Argument Without Knowledge of Birth Rank.Bradley Monton - 2003 - Philosophical Quarterly 53 (210):79–82.
Design and the Anthropic Principle.John Leslie - 1992 - Biology and Philosophy 7 (3):349-354.

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