Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (4):455-456 (2002)

The facial expression of pain is the end product of a complex process that is, in part, emotional. The evolutionary study of facial expression must account for the social nature of human consciousness and should address the questions of why empathy exists, the adaptive importance of empathy, and whether facial expression is a mechanism of empathy and second-person consciousness.
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DOI 10.1017/S0140525X02220087
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