Abstract
The different meanings of “courage” in The Analects were expressed in Confucius’ remark on Zilu’s bravery. The typological analysis of courage in Mencius and Xunzi focused on the shaping of the personalities of brave persons. “Great courage” and “superior courage”, as the virtues of “great men” or “ shi junzi 士君子 (intellectuals with noble characters)”, exhibit not only the uprightness of the “internal sagacity”, but also the rich implications of the “external kingship”. The prototype of these brave persons could be said to be between Zengzi’s courage and King Wen’s courage. The discussion entered a new stage of Neo-Confucianism in the Song and Ming dynasties, when admiration for “Yanzi’s great valor” became the key of various arguments. The order of “the three cardinal virtues” was also discussed because it concerned the relationship between “finished virtue” and “novice virtue”; hence, the virtue of courage became internalized as an essence of the internal virtuous life. At the turn of the 20 th century, when China was trembling under the threat of foreign powers, intellectuals remodeled the tradition of courage by redefining “Confucius’ great valor”, as Liang Qichao did in representative fashion in his book Chinese Bushido . Hu Shi’s Lun Ru 论儒 (On Ru ) was no more than a repetition of Liang’s opinion. In the theoretical structures of the modern Confucians, courage is hardly given a place. As one of the three cardinal virtues, bravery is but a concept. In a contemporary society where heroes and sages exist only in history books, do we need to talk about courage? How should it be discussed? These are questions which deserve our consideration.
Keywords yong  Zilu’s bravery  Zengzi’s bravery  Yanzi’s great valor  Confucius’ great valor
Categories (categorize this paper)
DOI 10.1007/s11466-010-0001-x
Options
Edit this record
Mark as duplicate
Export citation
Find it on Scholar
Request removal from index
Revision history

Download options

Our Archive


Upload a copy of this paper     Check publisher's policy     Papers currently archived: 50,118
External links

Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
Through your library

References found in this work BETA

After Virtue: A Study in Moral Theory.Alasdair C. MacIntyre - 1983 - University of Notre Dame Press.
The Ethics of Authenticity.Charles Taylor - 1992 - Harvard University Press.
The Courage to Be.Paul Tillich - 1952 - Yale University Press.
Courage: A Philosophical Investigation.Lester H. Hunt - 1988 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 23 (2):117-118.

View all 8 references / Add more references

Citations of this work BETA

No citations found.

Add more citations

Similar books and articles

Courage: The Politics of Life and Limb.Richard Avramenko - 2011 - University of Notre Dame Press.
Are You Man Enough? Aristotle and Courage.Jonathan J. Sanford - 2010 - International Philosophical Quarterly 50 (4):431-445.
Courage and Self-Control.Xinyan Jiang - 2007 - The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 1:59-64.
The Value of Courage.Per Bauhn - 2003 - Nordic Academic Press.
Plato and the Virtue of Courage.Linda R. Rabieh - 2006 - Johns Hopkins University Press.
Two Concepts of Courage.Per Bauhn - 2007 - The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 1:65-68.
Courage and Tragedy in Clinical Medicine.Earl E. Shelp - 1983 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 8 (4):417-429.

Analytics

Added to PP index
2010-02-15

Total views
61 ( #150,386 of 2,324,595 )

Recent downloads (6 months)
1 ( #679,828 of 2,324,595 )

How can I increase my downloads?

Downloads

My notes