Authors
Derong Chen
University of Toronto at Mississauga
Abstract
The notions of Di (Emperor), Shangdi (God in heaven), and Tian (Heaven) were endowed with a variety of meanings and were used to refer to different objects of worship in ancient Chinese religion. In different eras, Di referred to the earthly emperor as well as to the heavenly emperor; Tian referred to the physical sky as well as to a supreme personal god in different contexts. Hegel oversimplified these three notions when he characterized ancient Chinese religion as a kind of natural religion. This article aims to clarify Hegel’s misunderstanding of ancient Chinese religion by clarifying the meanings and references of these three notions as they appeared in the Yin-Shang and the Zhou Dynasties
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DOI 10.1007/s11712-008-9096-3
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References found in this work BETA

Leibniz and Confucianism: The Search for Accord.Laurence B. McCullough - 1979 - Philosophy East and West 29 (2):241-242.
Reproaching Heaven: The Problem of Evil in Mengzi. [REVIEW]Franklin Perkins - 2006 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 5 (2):293-312.
The Gods of Abraham, Isaiah, and Confucius.Kelly James Clark - 2005 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 5 (1):109-136.
Sorai and the Will Oftian.Kurtis Hagen - 2006 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 5 (2):313-330.

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