Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 38 (4):245-264 (2017)

Abstract
Naturalistic theories of disease appeal to concepts of biological function, and use the notion of dysfunction as the basis of their definitions. Debates in the philosophy of biology demonstrate how attributing functions in organisms and establishing the function-dysfunction distinction is by no means straightforward. This problematization of functional ascription has undermined naturalistic theories and led some authors to abandon the concept of dysfunction, favoring instead definitions based in normative criteria or phenomenological approaches. Although this work has enhanced our understanding of disease and illness, we need not necessarily abandon naturalistic concepts of function and dysfunction in the disease debate. This article attempts to move towards a new naturalistic theory of disease that overcomes the limitations of previous definitions and offers advantages in the clinical setting. Our approach involves a re-evaluation of concepts of biological function employed by naturalistic theories. Drawing on recent insights from the philosophy of biology, we develop a contextual and evaluative account of function that is better suited to clinical medicine and remains consistent with contemporary naturalism. We also show how an updated naturalistic view shares important affinities with normativist and phenomenological positions, suggesting a possibility for consilience in the disease debate.
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DOI 10.1007/s11017-017-9410-3
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References found in this work BETA

The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception.Marc H. Bornstein - 1980 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 39 (2):203-206.
Functional Analysis.Robert Cummins - 1975 - Journal of Philosophy 72 (November):741-64.
Natural Goodness.Philippa Foot - 2001 - Oxford University Press.

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Citations of this work BETA

Should Phenomenological Approaches to Illness Be Wary of Naturalism?Juliette Ferry-Danini - 2019 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 73:10-18.
Clinical Judgement in the Era of Big Data and Predictive Analytics.Benjamin Chin-Yee & Ross Upshur - 2018 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 24 (3):638-645.

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