Journal of Mind and Behavior 29 (4):291-320 (2008)
Empirical evidence shows that non-conscious appraisal processes generate bodily responses to the environment. This finding is consistent with William James’s account of emotion, and it suggests that a general theory of emotion should follow James: a general theory should begin with the observation that physiological and behavioral responses precede our emotional experience. But I advance three arguments (empirical and conceptual arguments) showing that James’s further account of emotion as the experience of bodily responses is inadequate. I offer an alternative model, according to which responses (physical states) are perceived and interpreted by a separate cognitive process, one that assigns meaning to those responses. The non-conscious appraisal process and the interpretive process are distinct, hence a two-stage model of emotion. This model is related to Schachter and Singer’s two-factor theory. Their often-discussed experiment showed that interpretation can play a role in producing emotions. But they do not show that interpretation is necessary for producing emotions in general, outside of the experimental conditions that generated unexplained arousal in subjects. My two-stage model supports this stronger claim by situating the interpretive process in a comprehensive model of emotion.
|Keywords||theories of emotion William James|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
References found in this work BETA
Did Descartes Have a Jamesian Theory of the Emotions?Gary Hatfield - 2007 - Philosophical Psychology 20 (4):413-440.
Gestalt Psychology and the Philosophy of Mind.William Epstein & Gary Hatfield - 1994 - Philosophical Psychology 7 (2):163-181.
Citations of this work BETA
No citations found.
Similar books and articles
William James on Emotion and Intentionality.Matthew Ratcliffe - 2005 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 13 (2):179-202.
The Feeling Body: Towards an Enactive Approach to Emotion.Giovanna Colombetti & Evan Thompson - forthcoming - In W. F. Overton, U. Mueller & J. Newman (eds.), Body in Mind, Mind in Body: Developmental Perspectives on Embodiment and Consciousness. Erlbaum.
William James and the Psychology of Emotions: From 1884 to the Present.Joseph T. Palencik - 2007 - Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 43 (4):769 - 786.
The Causal Status of Emotions in Consciousness.Jason T. Ramsay & Marc D. Lewis - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (2):215-216.
The Structure of Emotions: Investigations in Cognitive Philosophy.Robert M. Gordon - 1987 - Cambridge University Press.
Emotion and the Growth of Consciousness: Gaining Insight Through a Phenomenology of Rage.John Cogan - 2003 - Consciousness and Emotion 4 (2):207-241.
Intellectual Emotions and Religious Emotions.Peter Goldie - 2011 - Faith and Philosophy 28 (1):93-101.
Emotions as Moral Amplifiers: An Appraisal Tendency Approach to the Influences of Distinct Emotions Upon Moral Judgment.Elizabeth J. Horberg, Christopher Oveis & Dacher Keltner - 2011 - Emotion Review 3 (3):237-244.
Modularity, and the Psychoevolutionary Theory of Emotion.Paul E. Griffiths - 1990 - Biology and Philosophy 5 (2):175-196.
Embodying Emotions: What Emotion Theorists Can Learn From Simulations of Emotions. [REVIEW]Matthew P. Spackman & David Miller - 2008 - Minds and Machines 18 (3):357-372.
The Conceptual Framework for the Investigation of Emotions.P. M. S. Hacker - 2009 - In Ylva Gustafsson, Camilla Kronqvist & Michael McEachrane (eds.), Emotions and Understanding: Wittgensteinian Perspectives. Palgrave-Macmillan.
The Conceptual Framework for the Investigation of the Emotions.Peter M. S. Hacker - 2004 - International Review of Psychiatry 16 (3):199-208.
A Formal Model of Emotion Triggers: An Approach for BDI Agents.Bas R. Steunebrink, Mehdi Dastani & John-Jules Ch Meyer - 2012 - Synthese 185 (S1):83-129.
Added to index2011-08-16
Total downloads209 ( #19,145 of 2,172,657 )
Recent downloads (6 months)8 ( #36,430 of 2,172,657 )
How can I increase my downloads?