Earl Cookson
Marquette University
A central problem in the mind-body debate is the generation problem: how consciousness occurs in a universe understood as primarily non-conscious. This problem is particularly bothersome for physicalists. I argue that the generation problem stems from a non-critical presupposition about the nature of reality, namely, that the mental is an exception in the universe, a non-fundamental property. I call this presupposition mental specialism. Despite the fact that mental specialism dogmatically ingrained in the debate, there has been little reason offered either to accept or reject it. And doing so would dissolve the generation problem. But rejecting mental specialism, though it would dissolve the generation problem, would mean accepting another anathema presupposition: panpsychism. The resistance to panpsychism stems from the perception that panpsychism runs counter to science, that it is based on dogmatic metaphysical arguments, and that it entails doctrines that cannot be accepted by science, such as mysteriousness. This perception is misguided and here I argue that a naturalized panpsychism, one that does not run contrary to science in these ways, can be developed and defended. I argue that consciousness emerges from proto-consciousness, the fundamental property that is disposed to give rise to consciousness. Proto-consciousness is not an arbitrarily posited property; following an important contemporary approach in neuroscience, I understand proto-consciousness as information. The thesis that consciousness emerges from proto-consciousness elicits a fatal problem with panpsychic theories, the combination problem. This problem is how to account for higher-order conscious properties emerging from proto-conscious properties. I solve the combination problem that by adopting Giuolio Tononi’s Integrated Information Theory of Consciousness and demonstrating emerging higher-order conscious properties just is a system integrating information. Thus information is the fundamental property that, when integrated in a system such as a human being, is consciousness. Proto-consciousness is thus a natural property and the formulated panpsychic theory based upon information is a naturalized panpsychism
Keywords No keywords specified (fix it)
Categories (categorize this paper)
Edit this record
Mark as duplicate
Export citation
Find it on Scholar
Request removal from index
Revision history

Download options

PhilArchive copy

Upload a copy of this paper     Check publisher's policy     Papers currently archived: 59,968
External links

Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
Through your library

References found in this work BETA

What is It Like to Be a Bat?Thomas Nagel - 1974 - Philosophical Review 83 (October):435-50.
Mental Events.Donald Davidson - 1970 - In L. Foster & J. W. Swanson (eds.). Clarendon Press. pp. 207-224.
Facing Up to the Problem of Consciousness.David Chalmers - 1995 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 2 (3):200-19.

View all 30 references / Add more references

Citations of this work BETA

No citations found.

Add more citations

Similar books and articles

Consciousness, Information, and Panpsychism.William Seager - 1995 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 2 (3):272-88.
Emergentist Panpsychism.William Seager - 2012 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 19 (9-10):9-10.
A Quantum Physical Argument for Panpsychism.Shan Gao - 2013 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 20 (1-2):59-70.
A Possible Quantum Basis of Panpsychism.Shan Gao - 2001 - Neuroquantology 1 (1):4-9.
The Unity of Consciousness: An Enactivist Approach.Ralph D. Ellis & Natika Newton - 2005 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 26 (4):225-280.
Turning the "Hard Problem" Upside-Down and Sideways.Piet Hut & Roger N. Shepard - 1996 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 3 (4):313-29.
Solutions to the Hard Problem of Consciousness.Benjamin W. Libet - 1996 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 3 (1):33-35.


Added to PP index

Total views
24 ( #443,862 of 2,433,421 )

Recent downloads (6 months)
1 ( #468,801 of 2,433,421 )

How can I increase my downloads?


My notes