In Kevin Vallier & Joshua Rasmussen (eds.), A New Theist Response to the New Atheists. New York, USA: Routledge. pp. 33-46 (2020)

Dustin Crummett
University of Notre Dame
Philip Swenson
College of William and Mary
In this chapter, we will investigate the ramifications of moral knowledge for naturalism (roughly, the view that all that exists is the natural world). Specifically, we will draw attention to a certain problem we face if the world is purely naturalistic. We will then show how theism provides resources for solving this problem. We’ll argue that the fact that we have lots of moral knowledge fi ts better with theism than with naturalism. Specifically, we’ll present reasons to think that (1) naturalists who think we have lots of moral knowledge will have trouble rationally maintaining both their naturalism and their belief that we have such knowledge and (2) theism better explains the fact that we have lots of moral knowledge than naturalism does.
Keywords theism  naturalism  moral knowledge  moral knowledge argument  moral argument  arguments for theism
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A Darwinian Dilemma for Realist Theories of Value.Sharon Street - 2006 - Philosophical Studies 127 (1):109-166.
Meaning and Reference.Hilary Putnam - 1973 - Journal of Philosophy 70 (19):699-711.
The Descent of Man.Charles Darwin - 1874 - Prometheus Books.

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