Organizations as Human Communities and Internal Markets: Searching for Duality

Journal of Business Ethics 120 (4):441-455 (2014)

Abstract
Business firms have been explained as internal markets or as communities. To be sustainable, however, they need to reconcile these two constituting elements that have mainly been touted as opposite and part of a dualistic relationship. We suggest that organizations may, in alternative, view market and community as part of a duality, interdependent and mutually constituting processes that may not only contradict each other but also enable one another. The implications of a duality view for business ethics, which articulates market and community elements in a fruitful, mutually enabling relationship, are considered, and duality is presented as a way of transcending what is commonly viewed as opposition, moving organizations both in the direction of humane and competitive finalities.
Keywords Dualism  Duality  Internal markets  Community  Ethical leadership
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DOI 10.1007/s10551-013-1998-2
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Capitalism and Freedom.Milton Friedman - 1963 - Ethics 74 (1):70-72.
A Theory of Human Motivation.A. H. Maslow - 1943 - Psychological Review 50 (4):370-396.
Stakeholder Capitalism.R. Edward Freeman, Kirsten Martin & Bidhan Parmar - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 74 (4):303-314.

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