Normative Judgments and Individual Essence

Cognitive Science 41 (S3) (2017)
Joshua Knobe
Yale University
Kevin P. Tobia
Yale University
A growing body of research has examined how people judge the persistence of identity over time—that is, how they decide that a particular individual is the same entity from one time to the next. While a great deal of progress has been made in understanding the types of features that people typically consider when making such judgments, to date, existing work has not explored how these judgments may be shaped by normative considerations. The present studies demonstrate that normative beliefs do appear to play an important role in people's beliefs about persistence. Specifically, people are more likely to judge that the identity of a given entity remains the same when its features improve than when its features deteriorate. Study 1 provides a basic demonstration of this effect. Study 2 shows that this effect is moderated by individual differences in normative beliefs. Study 3 examines the underlying mechanism, which is the belief that, in general, various entities are essentially good. Study 4 directly manipulates beliefs about essence to show that the positivity bias regarding essences is causally responsible for the effect
Keywords Normative factors  Essentialism  True self  Concepts  Persistence  Identity  Morality
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DOI 10.1111/cogs.12364
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The Essence of Essentialism.George E. Newman & Joshua Knobe - forthcoming - Mind and Language.
Corporate Essence and Identity in Criminal Law.Mihailis E. Diamantis - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-12.

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