Abstract
Gaëlle Demelemestre | Résumé : On attribue à la Réforme la paternité de notre intelligence libérale du pouvoir et de la société civile. La tradition théologique classique, maintenant la possibilité d’une médiation entre l’homme et Dieu, ne serait pas parvenue à dégager la sphère des activités proprement humaines à partir de laquelle la modernité a pris son essor. Nous nous proposons ici d’évaluer cette thèse en comparant la pensée de Luther à celle d’un de ses contemporains prenant explicitement le contre-pied de ses positions, Vitoria, sur trois points précis : leur intelligence de la relation homme-Dieu, la nature de l’action humaine et de la loi naturelle qui s’en déduit, et leur théorisation subséquente du pouvoir politique. |: The Reformation is considered as the promoter of our liberal understanding of the political and civil society. The classical theological tradition, implying the possibility of a mediation between men and God, wouldn’t have been able to achieve the proper sphere of human activity from which modernity has taken off. Hereafter, we try to challenge this thesis by a comparison between Luther’s thought and the intellectual positions of one of his contemporaries, explicitly against Luther’s positions, Vitoria, on three precise points : their understanding of the God-men relation, the nature of human action and natural law which proceed from it, and their consequent theorization of the political power
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DOI 10.7202/1022494ar
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