L'homme image de Dieu

Archives de Philosophie 72 (2):293-315 (2009)
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Abstract

Quel sens la philosophie a-t-elle donné à la définition biblique de l’homme comme image de Dieu ? Au cours du XVIIe siècle, que l’on qualifie d’augustinien, la reprise de ce thème scripturaire se fait-elle en fidélité à l’évêque d’Hippone ? Le point de départ de notre analyse sera Descartes et le texte injustement négligé de la Troisième Méditation, tout entier consacré à cette notion de l’homme comme image de Dieu. Nous passerons ensuite à l’étude de Pascal, pour constater que, paradoxalement, c’est l’auteur que l’on qualifie le plus indiscutablement d’augustinien qui donne le moins d’ampleur à cette notion. A travers ces exemples, et en y ajoutant le contre point que représente, par rapport à Pascal, la philosophie de Fénelon, c’est ce que signifie être augustinien à l’Âge classique que nous souhaiterions pouvoir éclaircir.What specific meaning can Philosophy gives to the biblical assertion of human being as an image of God ? During the XVIIth century, which is recognized as an Augustinian one, is the interpretation of this topic made in reference to Augustine ? We will begin our analysis with Descartes and the text of the Third Meditation, unjustly disregarded by scholars, but all dedicated to this notion of human being as imago Dei. We will follow our study with Pascal, and we will have to notice that, paradoxically, he is the author who is considered indisputably as Augustinian but in the same time the one who gives the less extent to this notion of imago Dei. Through these examples, and with the additional consideration of Fénelon’s philosophy, we intend to precise what being an Augustinian means during the early modern Ages

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