Dirac’s relativistic theory of electron generally results in two possible solutions, one with positive energy and other with negative energy. Although positive energy solutions accurately represented particles such as electrons, interpretation of negative energy solution became very much controversial in the last century. By assuming the vacuum to be completely filled with a sea of negative energy electrons, Dirac tried to avoid natural transition of electron from positive to negative energy state using Pauli’s exclusion principle. However, many scientists like Bohr objected to the idea of sea of electrons as it indicates infinite density of charge and electric field and consequently infinite energy. In addition, till date, there is no experimental evidence of a particle whose total energy (kinetic plus rest) is negative. In an alternative approach, Feynman, in quantum field theory, proposed that particles with negative energy are actually positive energy particles running backwards in time. This was mathematically consistent since quantum mechanical energy operator contains time in denominator and the negative sign of energy can be absorbed in it. However, concept of negative time is logically inconsistent since in this case, effect happens before the cause. To avoid above contradictions, in this paper, we try to reformulate the Dirac’s theory of electron so that neither energy needs to be negative nor the time is required to be negative. Still, in this new formulation, two different possible solutions exist for particles and antiparticles (electrons and positrons).
Keywords Dirac’s theory of electron  Negative energy  Negative time  Antiparticles
Categories (categorize this paper)
Edit this record
Mark as duplicate
Export citation
Find it on Scholar
Request removal from index
Revision history

Download options

PhilArchive copy

 PhilArchive page | Other versions
External links

Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
Through your library

References found in this work BETA

There Are No Particles, There Are Only Fields.Art Hobson - 2012 - American Journal of Physics 81:211.

Add more references

Citations of this work BETA

No citations found.

Add more citations

Similar books and articles

The Zitterbewegung Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics.David Hestenes - 1990 - Foundations of Physics 20 (10):1213-1232.
New Curved Spacetime Dirac Equations.G. G. Nyambuya - 2008 - Foundations of Physics 38 (7):665-677.
Four-Space Formulation of Dirac's Equation.A. B. Evans - 1990 - Foundations of Physics 20 (3):309-335.
Linear and Nonlinear Dirac Equation.C. Daviau - 1993 - Foundations of Physics 23 (11):1431-1443.
The Tic-Tac-Toe Theory of Gravity.Daniel M. Greenberger - 2012 - Foundations of Physics 42 (1):46-52.
Liberal Democracy, Negative Theory, and Circularity: Plato and John Rawls.Aryeh Botwinick - 2012 - Telos: Critical Theory of the Contemporary 2012 (161):29-50.
Discrete Symmetries of Off-Shell Electromagnetism.Martin Land - 2005 - Foundations of Physics 35 (7):1263-1288.


Added to PP index

Total views
1,230 ( #2,623 of 2,343,895 )

Recent downloads (6 months)
49 ( #12,749 of 2,343,895 )

How can I increase my downloads?


My notes