Journal of Business Ethics 8 (11):865-871 (1989)

This article argues that foreign multinational corporations in South Africa cannot evade an ethical choice, how best to exercise their leverage against apartheid? Disinvestment is only one, ambiguous option. MNCs need clear ethical goals and an effective strategy. Both arise from the political economy of the MNC . It involves 3 relationships, between the MNC parent and its subsidiary; the MNC home society and host society; and the MNC home state and host state. That political economy explains the MNC's dependency and modernization effects . Those effects give foreigners some leverage against apartheid; but an effective and ethical MNC strategy is needed . It involves four goals: dismantling apartheid, a mixed economy, full democracy, and a negotiated peace . It suggests a sequence of MNC/home state options from Do Nothing or Divest to More Corporate Activism, Home State Support, and International Sanctions . But victory is not around the corner; rather, we are all condemned to freedom
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DOI 10.1007/BF00384530
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