Filozofija I Društvo 23 (4):19-31 (2012)

Abstract
The article explores two questions: what is feminist bioethics, and how different it is from standard bioethics. Development of feminist bioethics, it is argued, began as a response to standard bioethics, challenging its background values, and philosophical perspectives. The most important contribution of feminist bioethics has been its re-examination of the basic conceptual underpinnings of mainstream bioethics, including the concepts of?universality?,?autonomy?, and?trust?. Particularly important for feminists has been the concept of autonomy. They challenge the old liberal notion of autonomy that treats individuals as separate social units and argue that autonomy is established through relations. Relational autonomy assumes that identities and values are developed through relationships with others and that the choices one makes are shaped by specific social and historical contexts. Neither relational autonomy, nor feminist bioethics, however, represents a single, unified perspective. There are, actually, as many feminist bioethics as there are feminisms-liberal, cultural, radical, postmodern etc. Their different ontological, epistemological and political underpinnings shape their respective approaches to bioethical issues at hand. Still what they all have in common is interest in social justice-feminists explore mainstream bioethics and reproductive technologies in order to establish whether they support or impede gender and overall social justice and equality. Feminist bioethics thus brings a significant improvement to standard bioethics. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 41004: Bioethical Aspects: Morally Acceptable Within the Biotechnologically and Socially Possible i br. 43007: Studying climate change and its influence on the environment: impacts, adaptation and mitigation] Tekst pokusava da pruzi odgovor na dva pitanja: sta je feministicka bioetika i po cemu se ona razlikuje od standardne? bioetike. Poceci feministicke bioetike vezuju se za prve feministicke kritike?standardne? bioetike, a njen dalji razvoj i najznacajniji doprinos povezani su s redefinisanjem centralnih kategorija glavnog toka bioetike. To su, pre svega,?opstost?,?autonomija? i?poverenje?. Za feminizam je od posebnog znacaja koncept autonomije, te se njemu u tekstu poklanja nesto vise paznje. Feminzam kritikuje stari liberalni pristup autonomiji u kome se pojedinci posmatraju kao zasebne, izolovane jedinke, smatrajuci da se autonomija ostvaruje kroz drustvene odnose. Koncept relacione autonomije polazi od pretpostavke da se identiteti razvijaju i vrednosti usvajaju kroz odnose s drugima, kao i da su izbori koje po jedinici prave u velikoj meri odredjeni konkretnim drustvenim kontekstom. Ni relaciona autonomija kao ni feministicka bioetika, medjutim, ne predstavljaju jedinstveno, unisono, stanoviste. Moze se reci da ima onoliko feministickih bioetika koliko i feminizama-liberalni, radikalni, kulturni, postmoderni... Oni se izmedju sebe razlikuju po ontoloskim, epistemoloskim i politickim premisama koje nadalje odredjuju i njihov pristup bioetickim pitanjima. Ipak, svi ovi razliciti feminizmi i feministicke bioetike bave se pitanjem socijalne pravde. U okviru feminizma bio?etika i reproduktivne tehnologije i reprogenetika se proucavaju da bi se utvrdilo da li i u kojoj meri podupiru ili pak ogranicavaju rodnu ravnopravnost i opstu pravdu u drustvu. Stoga se moze reci da feministicka bioetika donosi znacajno poboljsanje i dopunu?standardnoj? bioetici. PR Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 41004: Bioethical Aspects: Morally Acceptable Within the Biotechnologically and Socially Possible i br. 43007: Studying climate change and its influence on the environment: impacts, adaptation and mitigation
Keywords feminism, bioethics, social justice, autonomy, reproductive technology
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DOI 10.2298/fid1204019d
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