Argent et aliénation dans les Manuscrits de 1844 de K. Marx

Archives de Philosophie 3 (3):489-506 (2008)
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Abstract

Contre les économistes classiques qui se sont pour la plupart concentrés sur l’échange et la valeur, Marx propose dans les Manuscrits de 1844 une réflexion précise sur l’argent qui prend ainsi place dans le procès global de l’aliénation. L’argent se caractérise notamment par sa forme pure et abstraite et participe d’une création de besoins artificiels qui accroissent la dépendance de l’individu. Ce faisant, l’argent est cause d’une aliénation spécifique : il transforme la quantité pure en une valeur à l’aune de laquelle tout est réévalué. Cette abstraction croissante de ce qui au départ n’est qu’un moyen explique qu’il constitue progressivement la règle de tout commerce. Les échanges ne sont plus alors que les occasions de manifester l’argent lui-même. Si c’est bien sur la propriété privée que se fonde la puissance de l’argent, celui-ci a aussi son mécanisme propre.Against the classical econonics who focuses on the problems of exchange and value, Marx thinks in the Manuscripts of 1844 about money and especially its place in the global alienation process. Money is particularly described as an abstraction and plays a role in the making of artificial needs who alienate men. That is why money is a specific form of alienation : it transforms pure quantity in value in order to estimate everything. This increasing abstraction of a simple tool makes money the rule of every deal. Therefore exchanges become only occasions to make money appear. Despite the fact that the power of money is based on the property, money is also a specific form of alienation

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