Abstract
As is well known, answer-set programs do not satisfy the replacement property in general, i.e., programs and that are equivalent may cease to be so when they are put in the context of some other program, i.e., and may have different answer sets. Lifschitz, Pearce, and Valverde thus introduced strong equivalence for context-independent equivalence, and proved that such equivalence holds between given programs and iff and are equivalent theories in the monotonic logic of here-and-there. In this article, we consider a related question: given a program, does there exist some program from a certain class of programs such that and are equivalent under a given notion of equivalence? Furthermore, if the answer to this question is positive, how can we recast as an equivalent program from? In particular, we consider classes of programs that emerge by allowing disjunction and/or negation, and as equivalence notions we consider strong, uniform, and ordinary equivalence. Based on general model-theoretic properties and a novel form of canonical programs, we develop semantic characterisations for the existence of such a program, determine the computational complexity of checking existence, and provide rewriting rules for recasting.
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DOI 10.1080/11663081.2013.799318
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A Logic for Default Reasoning.Ray Reiter - 1980 - Artificial Intelligence 13 (1-2):81-137.
The Stable Model Semantics for Logic Programming.Melvin Fitting - 1992 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 57 (1):274-277.

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