PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1984:551-566 (1984)
In the Modern Synthesis, the ontology of species is context-dependent: species are seen as "individuals" at any instant in geological time; through time, species-lineages are class-like entities regularly transforming themselves into other, descendant species. Moreover, at any one instant in time, species are predominantly construed as reproductive communities; through time, they are seen as economic entities, bound together by the joint possession of anatomical similarities among constituent organisms. It is argued that a more complete picture sees species as spatiotemporally bounded historical "individuals", hence as reproductive communities in time as well as space; that species are not economic units; and that a complete evolutionary theory must address large-scale economic units as well as large-scale informational units, visualizing particular instances of such hierarchically arranged classes as spatiotemporally bounded historical entities -- i.e., as "individuals"
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