O Abismo da Liberdade: Arendt vs. Kierkegaard e Sartre

Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 64 (2/4):1127 - 1140 (2008)
A filosofia da existência, que aqui tacitamente se considera iniciada por Søren Kierkegaard, constitui o solo, depois trabalhado por Heidegger, em que se haveriam de desenvolver as obras de Hannah Arendt e Jean-Paul Sartre. Os percursos do pensamento de Kierkegaard, Sartre e Arendt assumiram, no entanto, uma configuração claramente distinta. Os três filósofos definem o ser humano como existência e como liberdade. Em Kierkegaard e Sartre, a existência é apreendida como absurdo e a liberdade ensombrada pela angústia perante o abismo da possibilidade e do nada. Em Arendt, porém, o abismo e o nada aparecem desvinculados da angústia, dado que o nada não é senão a interrupção do continuum da natureza, o hiato que precede o acto livre, ou seja, o absolutamente novo. O artigo mostra ainda como ao salto do absurdo para a fé, de Kierkegaard, e para a acção, de Sartre, Arendt opõe a função humanizadora da actividade de pensar. /// Existential philosophy, which here is considered as having been initiated by Søren Kierkegaard, constitutes the soil, later to be cultivated by Heidegger, in which Hannah Arendt and Jean-Paul Sartre were to develop their works. And yet, the paths followed by Kierkegaard, Sartre and Arendt clearly differ from one another. Indeed, these three philosophers define human being as existence and freedom. In fact, if for Kierkegaard and Sartre existence is perceived as an absurd and freedom is shadowed by anxiety before the abyss of possibility and nothingness, for Arendt freedom appears disconnected from anxiety, since "nothingness" reveals itself as the break of the continuum of nature, the hiatus that precedes every free act or, in other words, the absolutely new. Moreover, as opposed to the leap from the absurd into faith, as in Kierkegaard, or into action, as in Sartre, Arendt underlines specially the humanizing function of the activity of thinking.
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