Extending SME to Handle Large‐Scale Cognitive Modeling

Cognitive Science 41 (5):1152-1201 (2017)
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Analogy and similarity are central phenomena in human cognition, involved in processes ranging from visual perception to conceptual change. To capture this centrality requires that a model of comparison must be able to integrate with other processes and handle the size and complexity of the representations required by the tasks being modeled. This paper describes extensions to Structure-Mapping Engine since its inception in 1986 that have increased its scope of operation. We first review the basic SME algorithm, describe psychological evidence for SME as a process model, and summarize its role in simulating similarity-based retrieval and generalization. Then we describe five techniques now incorporated into the SME that have enabled it to tackle large-scale modeling tasks: Greedy merging rapidly constructs one or more best interpretations of a match in polynomial time: O); Incremental operation enables mappings to be extended as new information is retrieved or derived about the base or target, to model situations where information in a task is updated over time; Ubiquitous predicates model the varying degrees to which items may suggest alignment; Structural evaluation of analogical inferences models aspects of plausibility judgments; Match filters enable large-scale task models to communicate constraints to SME to influence the mapping process. We illustrate via examples from published studies how these enable it to capture a broader range of psychological phenomena than before.



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Citations of this work

Analogy and Abstraction.Dedre Gentner & Christian Hoyos - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (3):672-693.
Cognitive science.Paul Thagard - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Cognitive Science.Thagard Paul - forthcoming - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
The Epistemology of Rational Constructivism.Mark Fedyk & Fei Xu - 2018 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 9 (2):343-362.

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Metaphors We Live By.George Lakoff & Mark Johnson - 1980 - Ethics 93 (3):619-621.
Metaphors We Live by.Max Black - 1980 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 40 (2):208-210.

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