Kantian Review 22 (4):523-551 (2017)

Rainer Forst
Goethe University Frankfurt
This article argues that alienation should be understood as a particular form of individual and social heteronomy that can only be overcome by a dialectical combination of individual and collective autonomy, recovering a deontological sense of normative authority. If we think about alienation in Kantian terms, the main source of alienation is a denial of standing or, in the extreme, losing a sense of oneself as a rational normative authority equal to all others. I call the former kind of alienation, where persons deny others equal standing as a normative authority in moral or political terms, first order noumenal alienation, as there is no proper mutual cognition and recognition of each other in such a social context. I call the latter kind of alienation, where a subject does not consider themselves an equal normative authority – or an ‘end in oneself’ – second order noumenal alienation. In this sense, alienation violates the dignity of humans as moral and political lawgivers – a dignity seen by Rousseau, Kant and Marx as inalienable: It can be denied or violated, but it cannot be lost.
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DOI 10.1017/s1369415417000267
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References found in this work BETA

Authority and Estrangement: An Essay on Self-Knowledge.Richard Moran - 2004 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 69 (2):448-454.
Necessity, Volition, and Love.Harry G. Frankfurt - 2001 - Philosophical Quarterly 51 (202):114-116.
Recognition, Power, and Agency. [REVIEW]Neil Roberts - 2009 - Political Theory 37 (2):296-309.
The Justification of Basic Rights.Rainer Forst - 2016 - Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy 45 (3):7-28.

View all 18 references / Add more references

Citations of this work BETA

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