On the integrated frameworks of species concepts: Mayden's hierarchy of species concepts and de Queiroz's unified concept of species

Richard L. Mayden and Kevin de Queiroz have devised and developed ‘a hierarchy of species concepts’ and ‘a unified species concept’, respectively. Although their integrated frameworks of species concepts are rather different as to how to integrate the diverse modern concepts of species, the end result is that they are likely to agree on species recognition in nature, because they virtually share the same major components (i.e. evolutionary or lineage concept of species; same way of delimiting species), and have the same important consequences. Both the hierarchical and unified frameworks, however, are interpreted to have shortcoming regarding the way of integrating the modern species concepts. I reformulate these ideas into a framework of species concepts as follows: It treats the idea of species as population-level evolutionary lineages (sensuWiley 1978) as the concept for species category, and it adopts the contingent biological properties of species (e.g. internal reproductive isolation, diagnosability, monophyly) as operational criteria in delimiting species. I also suggest that existing and revised versions of the integrated framework of species concepts all are not new species concepts, but versions of the evolutionary species concept, because they treat the evolutionary (or lineage) species concept as the concept for species category.
Keywords Evolutionary species concept  integrated framework of species concepts  hierarchy of species concepts  unified species concept  E. O. Wiley  R. L. Mayden  K. de Queiroz
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