The main focus of this article is the occurrence of some polarity items (PIs) in the complements of emotive factive verbs and only. This fact has been taken as a challenge to the semantic approach to PIs (Linebarger 1980), because only and factive verbs are not downward entailing (DE). A modification of the classical DE account is proposed by introducing the notion of nonveridicality (Zwarts 1995, Giannakidou 1998, 1999, 2001) as the one crucial for PI sanctioning. To motivate this move, it is first shown that two solutions in the direction of weakening classical monotonicity do not work: Strawson DE (von Fintel 1999) and weak DE (Hoeksema 1986). Weakening DE systematically either overgenerates or undergenerates, in either case failing to characterize the correct set of licensers. Nonveridicality is introduced as a conservative extension of DE and is shown to account for PIs also in contexts that are not DE (i.e. questions, modal verbs, imperatives, directive propositional attitudes). This theory, augmented with the premise that certain PIs (i.e. the liberal class represented by any) are subject to a weaker polarity dependency identified not as LICENSING but as RESCUING by nonveridicality, explains the occurrence of this particular class with only and emotive factive verbs. Crosslinguistic comparisons illustrate that the occurrence of PIs with only and emotive factives is not a general phenomenon, and further support the dual nature of polarity dependency and the semantic characterization of the elements that license or rescue PIs.
|Keywords||No keywords specified (fix it)|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
References found in this work BETA
No references found.
Citations of this work BETA
Association by Movement: Evidence From NPI-Licensing. [REVIEW]Michael Wagner - 2006 - Natural Language Semantics 14 (4):297-324.
No More Shall We Part: Quantifiers in English Comparatives.Peter Alrenga & Christopher Kennedy - 2014 - Natural Language Semantics 22 (1):1-53.
NPI Any and Connected Exceptive Phrases.Jon Gajewski - 2008 - Natural Language Semantics 16 (1):69-110.
Similar books and articles
Negative and Positive Polarity Items: Variation, Licensing, and Compositionality.Anastasia Giannakidou - manuscript
Only and Even: Sanctioning, Compositionality, and Variation in Polarity. (Handout).Anastasia Giannakidou - manuscript
The Myth of Factive Verbs.Allan Hazlett - 2010 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 80 (3):497 - 522.
The Dependency of the Subjunctive Revisited: Temporal Semantics and Polarity.Anastasia Giannakidou - manuscript
Licensing and Sensitivity in Polarity Items: From Downward Entailment to (Non)Veridicality.Anastasia Giannakidou - manuscript
From Hell to Polarity: Aggressively Non-D-Linked Wh-Phrases as Polarity Items.Anastasia Giannakidou & Marcel den Dikken - manuscript
Added to index2009-01-28
Total downloads64 ( #81,354 of 2,163,687 )
Recent downloads (6 months)1 ( #348,043 of 2,163,687 )
How can I increase my downloads?