Human Nature 32 (4):729-747 (2021)

Abstract
Research has found that both cisgender and transgender androphilic males have female-typical occupational preferences when compared with gynephilic males. Moreover, whereas cisgender androphilic males’ occupational preferences tend to be intermediate between those of gynephilic men and androphilic women, transgender androphilic males tend to have occupational preferences that are more similar to androphilic women. No study has directly compared both types of androphilic males within the same culture. The present study investigated occupational preference and its relation to childhood sex-atypical behavior, among gynephilic men, androphilic women, and cisgender and transgender androphilic males from the Istmo region of Oaxaca, Mexico, where androphilic males are recognized as third gender, muxes. The study found large sex differences in occupational preferences. Furthermore, both cisgender muxe nguiiu and transgender muxe gunaa reported having more sex-atypical occupational preferences compared with men. However, muxe gunaa reported higher female-typical occupational preferences than women and muxe nguiiu, whereas muxe nguiiu and women did not differ. These findings are consistent with the conclusion that sex-atypical occupational preferences are a cross-culturally universal aspect of male androphilia. Finally, CSAB was associated with sex-atypical occupational preferences among all participants. These findings suggest that a developmental continuity exists between childhood and adulthood sex-atypicality.
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DOI 10.1007/s12110-021-09417-5
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