Journal of Business Ethics 49 (1):41-54 (2004)

Abstract
This study examines the relationships between a company''s emphasis on discretionary social responsibility, environment, and firm performance. It tests the proposition that environmental munificence and dynamism moderate the relationship between discretionary social responsibility and financial performance. Social responsibility was measured with a three-item scale in a sample of 62 firms using a questionnaire. Environmental munificence and dynamism were measured using archival sources as was financial performance (return on assets and return on sales). The results of moderated regression analyses and subgroup analyses found a significant moderating effect of environment on the social responsibility-firm performance relationship. Discretionary social responsibility contributes to firm performance in environments that are dynamic and munificent.
Keywords environment  firm performance  social responsibility
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DOI 10.1023/B:BUSI.0000013862.14941.4e
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Corporate Social Responsibility and Management Forecast Accuracy.Dongyoung Lee - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 140 (2):353-367.

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