Journal of Business Ethics 35 (4):293 - 305 (2002)

Authors
J. J. Graafland
Tilburg University
Abstract
This article clarifies the relationship between profits and principles by distinguishing four alternative perspectives: the win-win perspective in which ethical behaviour generates the highest profits; a licence-to-operate perspective in which a minimum ethical performance is required to receive legitimation from the society; an acceptable profits perspective, in which an acceptable profitability is required to assure the financial continuity; and an integrated perspective. These four perspectives are illustrated by statements from Shell reports and from interviews with managers of a large European retail company.
Keywords ethics  licence to operate  profits  Shell reports  sustainability  triple P bottom line  win-win situation
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Reprint years 2004
DOI 10.1023/A:1013805111691
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Do Markets Crowd Out Virtues? An Aristotelian Framework.J. J. Graafland - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 91 (1):1-19.
The Social License to Operate.Geert Demuijnck & Björn Fasterling - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 136 (4):675-685.
Sourcing Ethics in the Textile Sector: The Case of C&A.Johan J. Graafland - 2002 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 11 (3):282–294.

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