Biological Theory 7 (3):227-236 (2013)

To answer the question of why we have consciousness, I propose the following evolutionary trajectory leading to this feature: Nervous systems appeared for the purpose of orchestrating behavior. As a rule of thumb the challenges facing an animal concern either approach or avoidance. These two options were originally hard-wired as reflexes. Improvements in adaptability of response came with an expansion of the computational aspect of the system and a concomitant shift from simple reflexes to instinctual behavior, learning, and eventually, feelings. The assessment of positive and negative feelings allows organisms to weigh various options, but for this to be a viable strategy, an awareness of hedonic value is required. This was presumably the first neural attribute to evolve that required awareness, and thus the key force in the evolution of consciousness. The attribute first appeared in the early amniotes (the phylogenetic group comprising reptiles, birds and mammals). Support for this model in current accounts of the neurobiology of feelings and consciousness is discussed
Keywords Amniotes  Consciousness  Emotions  Evolution  Mood modules  Self-awareness
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DOI 10.1007/s13752-012-0061-3
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References found in this work BETA

A Framework for Consciousness.Francis Crick & Christof Koch - 2003 - Nature Neuroscience 6:119-26.
Dreaming and the Brain: From Phenomenology to Neurophysiology.Yuval Nir & Giulio Tononi - 2010 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (2):88-100.

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The Evolution of Consciousness.Peter Carruthers - 2000 - In Peter Carruthers & A. Chamberlain (eds.), Evolution and the Human Mind: Modularity, Language and Meta-Cognition. Cambridge University Press. pp. 254.
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