Windows on animal minds

Consciousness and Cognition 4 (2):194-204 (1995)
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The simple kinds of conscious thinking that probably occur in nonhuman animals can be studied objectively by utilizing the same basic procedure that we use every day to infer what our human companions think and feel. This is to base such inferences on communicative behavior, broadly defined to include human language, nonverbal communication, and semantic communication in apes, dolphins, parrots, and honeybees. It seems likely that animals often experience something similar to the messages they communicate. Although this figurative window on other minds in obviously imperfect, it is already contributing significantly to our growing understanding and appreciation of animal mentality



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