The new features of the business environment have expanded the concept of organizational learning capability. In today’s competitive business environment, OLC has been recognized as an essential means to gain a sustainable competitive advantage. However, the effective development of that capability has not been sufficiently analyzed in the organizational learning literature. Prompted by a recent paradigm shift in the organizational sciences, this research explores the link between altruism and OLC testing a wider picture that includes two intermediate steps: Relationship Conflict and Organizational Trust. To check our hypotheses, we used structural equations to analyze data from a survey of Spanish firms with recognized excellence in human resource management. Results indicate that organizational trust mediates on the altruism—OLC relationship; however, such linkage is not mediated by relationship conflict. Findings suggest that altruism and trust should be promoted in organizations in order to boost OLC.