Journal of the History of Biology 36 (2):249 - 284 (2003)

Abstract
Historically labor has been central to human interactions with the environment, yet environmentalists pay it scant attention. Indeed, they have been critical of those who foreground labor in their politics, socialists in particular. However, environmentalists have found the nineteenth-century socialist William Morris appealing despite the fact that he wrote extensively on labor. This paper considers the place of labor in the relationship between humanity and the natural world in the work of Morris and two of his contemporaries, the eminent scientist Thomas Henry Huxley, and the Fabian socialist Herbert George Wells. I suggest that Morris's conception of labor has much to recommend it to environmentalists who are also interested in issues of social justice.
Keywords biology  Britain  environment  evolution  ethics  Fabianism  Herbert George Wells  labor  nature  nineteenth century  political economy  political ecology  Malthusianism  Marxism  social theory  Thomas Henry Huxley  William Morris
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DOI 10.1023/A:1024486021318
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