Fichte-Studien 44:209-220 (2017)

Abstract
Freedom is not identical with spontaneous willingness, as it was thought by Fichte. In the famous quarrel between Erasmus of Rotterdam and Luther is shown, that this idea of freedom has its origin in religious experience. Before this concept of freedom was identified with free will, Luther did understand human will as slavery of a will, which only by grace can be redeemed from bad influences and which leads to an understanding of liberty that is more humble and sensible. Fichte succeeded in finding out that liberty is founded on interpersonal requests as basic condition that corresponds to this sensible point of view. But this is only a subjective phenomenon which by this manner, with regard to human behaviour, would be a reliable principle. In accordance to Luther’s grammatical interpretation of the indicative form of biblical speech, considering the Ten Commandments in the indicative Form, not imperatively, this good sense might also have inaugurated the Translation into the lawful conduct of human rights. As far as the law is concerned, this could be seen as a first step in realizing the idea of liberty.Freiheit lasst sich nicht als Spontaneitat wie bei Fichte bestimmen. Vielmehr wird am Streit zwischen Erasmus von Rotterdam und Luther erkennbar, wie sich Freiheit aus der inneren religiosen Erfahrung selbst in der Spontaneitat als ›Freiheit eines Christenmenschen‹ trotz Verneinung des freien Willens zeigt. Fichte ist es zwar gelungen, die innere Erfahrung der Freiheit intersubjektiv bedingt in der ›Aufforderung‹ nachzuweisen. Daraus ergibt sich Willensfreiheit als eine Stufe, fur welche die religiose Freiheit einen Verzicht auf en subjektiven Herrschaftswillen bereithalt. Freiheit im Recht lasst sich dann, analog zu Luthers Analyse des indikativen biblischen Sprachgebrauchs zur Kennzeichnung gottlichen Gebots, schon in der Einhaltung des Rechts aus indikativem Verstandnis seiner Gesetzmasigkeit erkennen.
Keywords Continental Philosophy  History of Philosophy  Major Philosophers
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ISBN(s) 0925-0166
DOI 10.5840/fichte20174416
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