Metacognition as evidence for explicit representation in nonhumans

Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (3):346-347 (2003)
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Metacognition is either direct, as when information is recalled before making a confidence judgment, or indirect, as when the probability of successful future retrieval is determined inferentially. Direct metacognition may require an explicit mental representation as its object and can only be demonstrated under specific experimental circumstances. Other forms of metacognition can be based on publicly observable stimuli rather than introspection.



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