Midwest Studies in Philosophy 41 (1):175-201 (2017)

Abstract
Hope is hard to characterise because of the exceptional diversity of its applications, to the point that one may wonder whether there is continuity between ordinary cases of hope and what is often called 'hope against hope'. In this paper, I shall follow the relatively small but growing literature on hope and examine propositional hopes, i.e. hopes of the form 'hoping that p', with a particular focus on recent work by Philip Pettit and Adrienne Martin. I shall do this first by identifying a significant difficulty encountered by what has become known as the 'orthodox definition'. The OD defines hope by means of two necessary and sufficient conditions: A hopes that p if and only if A desires that p and A assigns to p a degree of probability between 0 and 1. On this definition, to hope is to desire an outcome we deem neither certain nor impossible. Note that the relevant probability assignment is subjective: the OD allows, for example, that children can hope for Father Christmas to visit them on Christmas Eve.
Keywords Analytic Philosophy  Contemporary Philosophy
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DOI 10.1111/misp.12069
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References found in this work BETA

A Treatise of Human Nature.David Hume & A. D. Lindsay - 1958 - Philosophical Quarterly 8 (33):379-380.
How We Hope: A Moral Psychology.Adrienne Martin - 2014 - Princeton University Press.
The Nature of Hope.Ariel Meirav - 2009 - Ratio 22 (2):216-233.
What is It to Lose Hope?Matthew Ratcliffe - 2013 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 12 (4):597-614.
Nietzsche and Amor Fati.Béatrice Han-Pile - 2011 - European Journal of Philosophy 19 (2):224-261.

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Citations of this work BETA

Hope as an Irreducible Concept.Claudia Blöser - 2019 - Ratio 32 (3):205-214.
Adorno on Hope.Timo Jütten - 2019 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 45 (3):284-306.
Analyzing Hope : The Live Possibility Account.Carl-Johan Palmqvist - forthcoming - European Journal of Philosophy.
Controlling Hope.Michael Milona & Katie Stockdale - 2021 - Ratio 34 (4):345-354.

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