Foundations of Physics 42 (1):29-45 (2012)

Initially Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) and later Bell shed light on the non-local properties exhibited by subsystems in quantum mechanics. Separately, Kochen and Specker analyzed sets of measurements of compatible observables and found that a consistent coexistence of these results is impossible, i.e., quantum indefiniteness of measurement results. As a consequence, quantum contextuality, a more general concept compared to non-locality, leads to striking phenomena predicted by quantum theory. Here, we report neutron interferometric experiments which investigate entangled states in a single-particle system: entanglement is, in this case, achieved not between particles, but between degrees of freedom i.e., between spin, path, and energy degrees of freedom. Appropriate combinations of the spin analysis and the position of the phase shifter in the interferometer allow an experimental verification of the violation of a Bell-like inequality. In addition, state tomography, tomographic analysis of the density matrix of a quantum system, and Kochen-Specker-like phenomena are presented to characterize neutrons’ entangled states and their peculiarity. Furthermore, a coherent energy manipulation scheme is accomplished with a radio-frequency (RF) spin-flipper. This scheme allows the (total) energy degree of freedom to be entangled: the remarkable behavior of a triply entangled GHZ-like state is demonstrated
Keywords Neutron interferometer  Entanglement  Bell’s inequality  State tomography  Kochen Specker theorem  GHZ-state  Degrees of freedom
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DOI 10.1007/s10701-010-9499-y
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Quantum Theory and Measurement.John Archibald Wheeler & Wojciech Hubert Zurek - 1985 - Philosophy of Science 52 (3):480-481.
Quantum Theory and Measurement.J. A. Wheeler & W. H. Zurek - 1986 - Synthese 67 (3):527-530.

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