Force and Mind–Body Interaction

In Juan Jose Saldana (ed.), Science and Cultural Diversity: Proceedings of the XXIst International Congress of the History of Science. Autonomous National University of Mexico. pp. 3074-3089 (2005)
Gary Hatfield
University of Pennsylvania
This article calls into question the notion that seventeenth-century authors such as Descartes and Leibniz straightforwardly conceived the mind as something "outside" nature. Descartes indeed did regard matter as distinct from mind, but the question then remains as to whether he equated the natural world, and the world of laws of nature, with the material world. Similarly, Leibniz distinguished a kingdom of final causes (pertaining to souls) and a kingdom of efficient causes (pertaining to bodies and motions), but the question remains as to whether he equated nature with the second kingdom alone, or included both kingdoms within nature. Although Kant sundered Leibniz's envisioned connection between the two kingdoms, even he did not place mind fully outside nature.
Keywords Rene Descartes  Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz  Immanuel Kant  Laws of nature  Determinism  Freedom of will  Compatibilism  Mind-body interaction  Pre-established harmony  Historiography
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Descartes' Naturalism About the Mental.Gary Hatfield - 2000 - In Stephen Gaukroger, John Schuster & John Sutton (eds.), Descartes' Natural Philosophy. Routledge. pp. 630–658.

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