Business Ethics Quarterly 11 (1):159-176 (2001)

Abstract
After a decade of intensive debate, stakeholder ideas have come to exert a significant influence on academic managementthinking, but normative stakeholder theory itself appears to be in considerable disarray. This paper attempts to untangle the confusionand to prepare the ground for a more productive approach to the normative stakeholder problem. The paper identifies three distinctkinds of normative stakeholder theory and three different levels of claim that can be made by such theories, and uses this classificationto argue that stakeholder theorists have consistently pitched their sights either too high or too low to engage effectively with the rivalshareholder theory. To the extent that they have their sights too high they have also undermined their own position by sacrificingcredibility and introducing major problems of derivation
Keywords Applied Philosophy  Business and Professional Ethics  Social Science
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ISBN(s) 1052-150X
DOI 10.2307/3857875
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References found in this work BETA

Capitalism and Freedom.Milton Friedman - 1962 - Ethics 74 (1):70-72.
Political Liberalism by John Rawls. [REVIEW]Philip Pettit - 1994 - Journal of Philosophy 91 (4):215-220.
Business Ethics and Stakeholder Analysis.Kenneth E. Goodpaster - 1991 - Business Ethics Quarterly 1 (1):53-73.

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Citations of this work BETA

What Stakeholder Theory is Not.Andrew C. Wicks - 2003 - Business Ethics Quarterly 13 (4):479-502.
The Stakeholder Model Refined.Yves Fassin - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 84 (1):113-135.

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