Synthese:1-17 (forthcoming)

Renaud-Philippe Garner
University of Toronto
Scott Hill
Ohio State University
One might think that if the majority of virtue signallers judge that a proposition is true, then there is significant evidence for the truth of that proposition. Given the Condorcet Jury Theorem, individual virtue signallers need not be very reliable for the majority judgment to be very likely to be correct. And so, even people who are skeptical of the judgments of individual virtue signallers should think that if a majority of virtue signallers judge that a proposition is true, then that provides significant evidence that that proposition is true. We argue that this is mistaken. Various empirical studies converge on the following point: humans are very conformist in the contexts in which virtue signalling occurs. And stereotypical virtue signallers are even more conformist in such contexts. So we should be skeptical of the claim that virtue signallers are sufficiently independent for the Condorcet Jury Theorem to apply. We do not seek to decisively rule out the relevant application of the Condorcet Jury Theorem. But we do show that careful consideration of the available evidence should make us skeptical of that application. Consequently, a defense of virtue signalling would need to engage with these findings and show that despite our strong tendencies for conformism, our judgements are sufficiently independent for the Condorcet Jury Theorem to apply. This suggests new directions for the debate about the epistemology of virtue signalling.
Keywords Virtue Signalling  Moral Grandstanding  Levy, Neil  Tossi, Justin and Warmke, Brandon  Westra, Evan
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